Last week, I saw a lone caterpillar being swarmed & devoured by small ants. The caterpillar had ventured too close to the ant nest and was overtaken by the colony.
Perhaps the caterpillar was already sick or impaired, but the ants were probably impossible to fight off, anyway.
I took video as close as I could get to it, so it's a little shaky. You can see enough detail to make out the ants crawling on & biting at the larger insect. It was pretty creepy, but the patio was already littered with bodies of other caterpillars, so it was not a unique fate. Nature is crazy & brutal.